Development cooperation entails all those activities aimed at creating peace and solidarity among peoples, promotion of democratic pluralism and reduction of inequality between the north and south of the world. Development cooperation is based on two top priority principles: The need to guarantee all inhabitants of the planet the protection of life and human dignity; improvement and strengthening of global economic interdependence, in order to ensure economic growth for all peoples.
The Italian cooperation policy proposes reaching these goals along with economic, cultural and safety related diplomacy, strengthening Italy's role in the world. In Italy's historic experience, development cooperation started with a series of technical and economic aid interventions, starting in the 1950's and 1960's, in countries linked to Italy through colonial ties, and in the case of Somalia by UN mandate as trusteeship.
Legally binding document, stipulated between two or more parties which have an international legal capacity.. Other than the term "agreement" other terms are commonly used as synonyms: pact, treaty, charter. With the enactment of the reform of Chapter V of the Constitution, Italian agencies can stipulate international agreements with similar agencies.
LOCAL DEMOCRACY AGENCIES (ADL)
Instituted in 1993, with the name of local democracy Embassies (from the at that time Permanent Conference of Local and Regional Powers of Europe) they acted as an instrument to back local democracy. Witness to this is the commitment of the local European Autonomies to establish new forms of coordination and cooperation with the communes of the former Yugoslavia. Transformed in 1998 into Agencies, the ADL, like most of the mechanisms started under decentralised cooperation, are characterised by a public-private composition.
National Association of Italian Communes, to which Italian Communes belong, no matter what their demographic importance.. It is a single Association with national character (the national headquarters is in Rome). The principle aim of ANCI is to protect and maintain the principle of communal autonomy. ANCI's actions involve different levels: it represents its members before central State bodies, to promotes study on problems which affect Communes, it intervenes with its representatives in places where the interests of local autonomies are being discussed, it provides its members with consultation services, it participates in collective negotiations for the personal of local agencies, it promotes and exclusively coordinates international relations and development coordination activities.
A generic term used to define the intervention of one government in favour of another government of a developing country.
Multibilateral cooperation is an operating instrument used to create a connection between the activities of multilateral bodies and cooperation programs implemented on a bilateral level. Multibilateral aid is defined as initiatives agreed to and financed at a bilateral level, but entrusted to a specialised Agency or international body for execution.
Generic term which indicates a programme created by an international body with financial backing from various donator governments..
An intervention subject to conditions which the beneficiary country must observe.
Intervention, programme or other activity in favour of a beneficiary country defined "untied" as it is not subject to any conditions to benefit from the aid.
Means Public Aid for Development. This term means every initiative implemented, financed, programmed or sponsored by the Government, made available or financed by public funds, destined to promote developing countries. The amount of APS is determined in the political sphere in relation to GNP.
Means temporary association of enterprises. One or more enterprises joins forces to create a project which may, in the event of cooperation, be for a developing country, a member of ATI acts as the representative for the other enterprises to reach a common goal.
These are all the organisations which combine the main expressions of the society outside of the government and public administration. Non-government players are formed by voluntary initiative of citizens, are independent from the Government and may or may not be for profit. They include NGOs, social partners (trade unions, business associations), industry associations, church associations and sectarian movements, universities, cultural associations and information media within the framework of development cooperation.
Are Italian local autonomies: the Regions, autonomous provinces and local Agencies. The European Charter for Local Self-Governments defines as such local legal governments able, within the limits of the law, to regulate and manage a substantial share of the public affairs under its own responsibility and in the interest of the local population.
All of the information originating from Management's activity from 1984 to present. They involve cooperation INITIATIVES and PROJECTS, as well as administrative measures related to operating expenses.
DATABASE OF EMERGENCY EXPERTS
The list of experts in cooperation matters to be used for emergency programmes (Article 16, paragraph 1, letter c) of LAW no. 49 of 1987. They are specialised personnel hired under private contract.
Citizens of developing countries who benefit from an Italian scholarship.
Programme originating during a G7 summit in Lyon in 1997 where the HIPC initiative was launched (Heavily Indebted Poor Countries). Debt cancellation is aimed at providing extraordinary assistance to reduce the debt of the poorest developing countries and most in debt to foreign countries. The programme currently involves 42 developing countries. Italy has transposed this recommendation with law no. 209 of 2000.
Within the EU framework, the guidelines for development cooperation, contained in the joint Commission-Council Declaration of November 2000. The main aim is to gear cooperation to limited areas considered top priority and to thus maximise joint interventions.
This is the development cooperation effected by local Italian Autonomies, individually or together in a consortium, even with the aid of civil society, within the limits set by law 49 of 1987. Decentralised cooperation is activated in collaboration with similar institutions of the developing countries and promotes active participation of the different components representative of civil society in the partner countries. Among the various structural procedures of the decentralised approach is the territorial procedure - a partnership between territories for the promotion of local development - and the creation of networks between local Autonomies of the North, South and countries in transition.
In accordance with the requirements of article 9 of law no. 49/84, a STEERING COMMITTEE has been created for Development Cooperation. It is headed by the Minister For Foreign Affairs or Undersecretary in charge of cooperation and includes: the Director Generals of Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Secretary General for economic planning, Director General of the Treasury of the Ministry of Economic and Finance, the Director General of foreign trade currency of the Ministry for Productive Activities and that of Mediocredito Centrale. The duties of the Committee are established by paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 of article 9. The Steering Committee has a Secretarial staff and TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT TEAM.
This is aid for the balance of payments of the beneficiary country by making funds available in a hard currency (donated or subsidised) for procuring goods and services on the Italian (tied) or international (untied) market. They involve direct government to government financing, expressly envisaged by law no. 49 of 1987 and art. 15 of enforcement Regulation no. 177 of 1988.
COOPERATION CURRENT ACCOUNT
The financing of DGCS (General Management for Development Cooperation) to the Representatives in the disbursement currency, are all in a single current account in the name of the Cooperation. Where a second credit line has been opened due to the presence of a second AUTHORISED OFFICIAL in accordance with Presidential Decree 120/00. financing for operating costs for UTL (local technical units) and for payment of claims are put in a separate current account.
This is financing for International Organisations for carrying out an INITIATIVE/PROJECT identified by DGCS (General Management for Development Cooperation) and subject to FINANCIAL REPORTS (multibilateral channel): already under the Territorial Offices for PROGRAMMING, this component of cooperation activity is entirely followed by the same Territorial Offices for all of the phases of ALLOCATION, DECREEING and DISTRIBUTION (with the exception of aid not broken down by country).
This is financing granted to international bodies, banks and development funds to implement work in developing countries, aimed at development, based on international agreements and protocols (to reach the Millennium Development Goals established by the UN Millennium Assembly in 2000 and signed by the international community). The entity of this financing is established taking into consideration the indications and assessments provided by Italian representatives in the various countries and requests made by the Bodies.
This is financing granted to the OO.II. (International Bodies), with aims similar to voluntary contributions, but unlike the former, their quantification is determined by law.
Personnel selected by NGOs for cooperation activities. Cooperators are assigned with technical, managerial and organisational responsibilities.
This is financing granted to cooperation activities valid on the Rotating Fund, at the Ministry of the Economy and Finance, and managed by the distributing Agency.
Subsidised loans are for: implementing a specific project (upon request of the beneficiary country) to support the balance of payments of the beneficiary country or to support projects promoted by local small and medium enterprises.
Measure of DGCS (General Management for Cooperation Development) used to earmark funds which have been the subject matter of PROGRAMMING and which are not relevant for accounting purposes (or for the Regulatory Body).
The depot, financially supported by DGCS (General Management for Development Cooperation) and managed by WFP (World Food Programme), it was created to collect, store and later send goods for food aid, collected by international agencies. These goods are to be used to help populations affected by natural disasters and/or complex emergencies.
This is the decision of an enterprise to inform its customers that 1% of the price of purchased goods will be earmarked for financing of ethical initiatives.. Consequently that 1% will be entirely written off.
This is the General Management for development cooperation of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs.
With resolution 55/2 the General Assembly of the United Nations, held during a special session in September 2000 in New York,officially approved an agreement to drastically reduce the economic gap between the North and South of the World by 2015, by pursuing the following 8 international development aims:
This is the weekly bulletin of the DGCS (General management for development cooperation) where all the resolutions of the General Management and Steering Committee are reported, as well as calls for tenders, documents, international reports that may be if use for Italian cooperation operators..
This is aid given to a developing country free of charge. It is used to cope with emergency situations and support the general economy. It may be in various forms: supply of goods, donations, debt cancellation.
The e-government initiative for development involves the application of new IT and digital technologies to administration and government activities of developing countries, in order to make them more efficient and transparent. E-government, in this sense, does nor merely involve online transfer of traditional administration procedures, but rather transformation of public administration methods and organisation thanks to the new opportunities offered by the new technologies. One of the aims of e-government is to reduce the digital divide.
The Italian government's e-government initiative, launched by the Prime Minister (G8 Genoa 2001) and started after the Palermo Conference, is financed by out Ministry -through DGCS (General Management for development cooperation) - and implemented in coordination with the Ministry for Innovation and Technology.
Term that can be translated as "grant powers", make someone able to do something.
EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENT FUND
EDF is the main instrument of EU aid to development cooperation of the APC (Africa-Pacific-Caribbean) countries, as well as Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT)
Funds generated from the sale of foodstuffs donated by Italian Cooperation to beneficiary countries.
The Global Fund ("Global Fund for the fight against AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria") is legally a Swiss Foundation set up during the G8 in Genoa in June 2001, aimed at promoting the fight against AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. It is a new type of International Organisation composed of a very small Council (22 members) where not only countries or groups of countries have the right to vote but also representatives of Civil Society (for example NGO representatives, a representative for private foundations, a representative for disease groups).
This is a non-interest bearing current account, opened at the Central Treasury of the government, held by the Ministry for the Economy. It was set up in 1977 to grant subsidised loans to developing countries in the framework of bilateral Italian cooperation for financing specific projects and programmes.
Procedure for financing a PROJECT, the implementation of which is managed in the beneficiary country. The EXPENSE ITEMS for the entire amount are issued in favour of the APPOINTED OFFICIALS and as such are subject to financial reporting.
ANTI-MINE HUMANITARIAN FUND
This was established with law no. 58 of 7 March 2001 to support anti-mine humanitarian aid to victims and to Embassies for aspects related to anti-mine activities..
OPERATIVE FACILITY MANAGEMENT (GSO)
These are decentralised facilities of DGCS (General management for development cooperation) which operate in some countries not yet possessing UTL (Local technical units).
This is the project of the United nations to create a connection between companies and civil societies, aimed at confirming in the global world a group of fundamental principles regarding human rights, including economic, social and health rights, requiring the active role of enterprises..
OVERSEAS AGRONOMIC INSTITUTE (IAO)
Established with law no. 1612 of 1962 it is a technical-scientific Body which the DGCS (General Management for development coordination) works with for consultation services and assistance in the agricultural field, and to start up and manage development initiatives in the agricultural-breeding and agricultural-industrial fields.
Macro-activity to be created through a flow of benefits in favour of a well-identified recipient.
They are broken down into:
a) Multibilateral initiatives
Development cooperation work created by the DGCS (General management for development cooperation) - in a certain developing country - with funds of a territorial office, through an international body, based on a specific agreement between, DGCS, body and developing country.
b) Multilateral initiatives
Development cooperation work created by the DGCS (General management for development cooperation) - in one or more developing country - with funds of a territorial office, through an international body, for multidonor programs proposed by the body itself.
Emergency initiatives are all those which are created to carry out work of an extraordinary nature, after natural disasters, war, humanitarian emergencies or other situations of need. It is approved and implemented with simplified procedures.
Its aim is to promote institutional reconstruction in a multi-ethnic society without a true democratic tradition.
Law no. 49 of 26 February 1987, together with the execution regulation approved with Presidential Decree no. 177 of 12 April 1988, governs Italy's cooperation with developing countries.
According to art. 2 of law no. 49, at the beginning of each year, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, dictates the main strategies for reaching the goals set by the Government in relation to Public Aid for Development (budget and planning report).
Network of associated subjects which have a similar vocation and intend operating in a synergic and coordinated manner.
TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT TEAM (NVT)
It is composed of 5 experts selected from the UTC (Central technical unit) who are appointed with a STEERING COMMITTEE resolution, which defines organisation and duty criteria..
The Development Aid Committee (DAC) created within OCSE (Organisation for cooperation and economic development) is one of the main Forums where the major donors work together to operate synergically, as effectively as possible to create sustainable development. DAC analyses the procedures to be used for international cooperation to contribute to the development capacities of the countries receiving aid, promoting participation of the global economy, with the aim of giving the populations the ability to overcome poverty and fully participate in society.
NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATION (NGO)
Non-profit organisation working in the cooperation field with developing countries, recognised as qualified by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs to implement cooperation programs as provided by art. 28 of law no. 49 of 1987. The DGCS (General management for development cooperation) can assign them implementation of PROGRAMMES, or it can contribute to the implementation of programmes proposed to Italian NGOs and also belonging to the EU or countries which are members of the Common European Economic Space Treaty.
This is the Interregional Observatory on Development Cooperation.. It is a non-profit association, its only members are all the Regions. Its aim is to offer various services related to international cooperation and internationalisation of its respective regional systems.
This is a association of subjects under international law, linked by an institutional agreement called Statute.
The definition of international body is not exact and universally accepted, leaving room for different interpretations. Some think that as long as the body is recognised by representatives of at least two sovereign countries through an institutional agreement them it can be called international body, for others instead at least two sovereign governments must be part of the governing body. In both cases recognition is based on an internationally accepted formal document (agreement, protocol, statute).
These are the Director General and Steering Committee, each within the limits set by law 49\87.
This indicates the ownership of a project.
It is the component of an INITIATIVE aimed at meeting specific goals..
The various project phases are described below:
The word STUDY (=S) identifies the phase when the PROJECT has been entered, identified and numbered (CODE AID).
With CANCELLED (=N), a PROJECT with an already approved VERSION is stopped at the next administrative procedure.
When a PROJECT is in the DATABASE with the word APPROVED (=A) it means that the SYSTEM has detected an approved VERSION (UNDER CONSIDERATION). It is possible to execute new versions and/or the DECREE phase, but it is no longer possible to make any changes to an approved VERSION.
When a PROJECT is in the DATABASE with the word ACTIVATED (=T) it means that at least one COMMITMENT has been registered with the Bookkeeping Office, but no payment has been registered yet. When the project is activated all of the ALLOCATION, DECREE and DISTRIBUTION phases can be effected.
The competent office assigns the CLOSED (=C) status when a PROJECT has had an active phase, i.e. with at least one COMMITMENT registered with the Bookkeeping Office. It is no longer possible to start ALLOCATION or COMMITMENT operations, while it is possible to carry out the DISTRIBUTION phase on already undertaken and registered COMMITMENTS.
When a PROJECT is in the DATABASE with the word DISTRIBUTED (=E) the SYSTEM has detected at least one payment already registered with the Bookkeeping Office. Therefore, the project is assumed to be fully active and all operations connected with ALLOCATION, DECREE and DISTRIBUTION are allowed.
While Commodity Aid has the general aim of organisational change, this instrument is aimed at development within defined programmes in specific fields. Importation of goods is tied to their Italian origin; nevertheless a derogation is allowed up to a maximum of 15% of the total value of the supply for products not available on the Italian production scene.
Initiative proposed by the General Management for development cooperation (Territorial or Thematic Offices), the implementation of which is assigned to a NGO with a specific agreement..
Initiative proposed by an NGO (recognised as qualified in accordance with art. 28 of Law 49/87), which manages the implementation, with a contribution granted by DGCS (General Management for development cooperation) for which it must furnish annual financial statements.
Budgeting of funds that the DGCS (General Management for development cooperation) may use on an annual or three year basis. It determines the framework of the COOPERATION INTERVENTIONS that will be activated based on political agreements with beneficiary countries.
This is public aid for development that allows the beneficiary company to obtain goods and services for a project with no restrictions from any country..
The players that have an interest in a project or place priority on it.
According to this principle, progressive decentralisation of the powers of central authorities in favour of local agencies closer to the needs of citizens, actions are implemented aimed at the socio-economic sphere.
This is the development able to guarantee meeting current needs without compromising the possibility of future generations to meet their needs.
The offices II, VI, VII, VIII and IX are in charge of Multilateral Cooperation, Emergency, NGOs, Subsidised Loans, Education-Scholarships, respectively.. Office XIII is specifically in charge of promoting the role of room and protection of the disabled and minors.
The offices III, IV, and V are in charge of Easter and Mediterranean Europe, Northern Africa, Middle East, Western Africa, Cape Horn, Southern Africa, Asia, the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, respectively.
The fund where governments, international bodies and banks keep financial resources in order to implement specific cooperation interventions or programmes in developing countries.
Union of Italian provinces, is the Association which represents all the provinces of Italy at the parliament, Government and EU bodies with the exception of the autonomous provinces of Trento, Bolzano and Aosta and the metropolitan cities. It handles connection activities with other bodies representing Local Agencies. Its job is to enhance, promote, and provide technical and political support for its members. It is qualified to stipulate international agreements if a territorial nature with similar agencies.
This body is in charge o pre and post assessment of the cooperation initiatives and consequent verification of results.
CENTRAL TECHNICAL UNIT (UTC)
This is the DGCS (General Management for development cooperation) support structure for carrying out technical tasks related to the identification, investigation, formulation, assessment, management and control phases of INITIATIVE and COOPERATION INTERVENTION programmes.
LOCAL TECHNICAL UNITS (UTL)
According to article 13 of Law 49/87, these are the decentralised facilities of the DGCS (General Management for development cooperation) which operate in developing countries. The regulations regarding their organisation and operation are contained in resolution 48 of 11/02/1992.
This is the break down of voluntary contributions granted annually to the multilateral bodies, based on development strategies and programmes proposed by the bodies.
Personnel recruited by NGOs for cooperation activities. Insurance and social security charges are the responsibility of the DGCS (General management for development cooperation).